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Българска Асоциация Диабет
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November 14 - The World Day to combat diabetes
prof. Maria Damjanova

Diabetes mellitus is one of the largest socially significant health problems in the world whose value is determined by the Army millions diabetics represent about 5% of the human population. It is an ancient disease and as old as mankind.
Therefore, proceeding from the nature of the disease with its chronic course costly treatment and disability in improper treatment General Assembly of the United Nations in 2006 adopted a resolution 14 November 2007 be set as World Day to combat diabetes. Date was chosen in honor of the birthday of Frederick Banting, the discoverer of insulin.
   For the first time the UN recognized non-communicable diseases such as risky to human health, global infectious diseases.The doal of the resolution is by increasing public attention to diabetes to increase the desire to develop national policies for prevention and treatment of fresh disease.
. Canadian Frederick Banting was a physiologist and conducted an experiment for a long time for receipt of antidiabetic hormone. In his activities he was actively supported by trainee doctors. But in the final phase of the experimental work the students had to come out in the summer semester break, which in fact deprives Banting student aid. Then he asked some students to remain voluntary to help him during the summer holidays. This volunteer was a volunteer physician assistant Charles Best. Under Best chance has become complicit in
epochal discovery of the age of 29 in Toronto against the July 30, 1921. Best in the coming years remains to work with Banting and thus enters into history as diabetology discoverer of insulin with Banting. Brand new hormone called insulin and the researchers said: "Insulin is NOT our property, it belongs to all mankind" by giving up the right to patent insulin's name. Army millions of diabetics around the world thanks them for saving this precious gift of life. Subsequently, insulin was purified from Kolip and was attached to the first diabetic in the world, 13 year, Leonard Thompson, transported by ship a bed by his mother from the UK to Toronto. In 1924 awarded the Nobel prize for Banting in the discovery of insulin, which he shared with Charles Best, Mac, provided the experimenters Leold his laboratory.
For 80 years Banting and Best is regarded as discoverers of insulin. In reality, however, the first to discover insulin Paulesko a Romanian who has received this recognition until 31. 08. 2000. Paulesko who worked in Paris discovered insulin Canadians a few years ago but has not published his discovery, and therefore remain in oblivion. He has named his discovery pancreatitis and publish the full information about it until August 1921, only about one month after the announcement of the Banting and Best.
The historical roots of diabetes amount to more than 3000 years. In the first century AD Arateus Kapadoniya introduces the concept of "diabetes" means a Greek fountain, cascade, expire in, a Chinese at that time called the disease of lust disease. Later the Romans added to the concept of diabetes and the concept melitus "Latin word that is to say honey sweet sugar. Thus, in ancient times formed the name of the disease acquired citizenship today MELITUS DIABETES, diabetes mellitus adopted worldwide.
During the years of the 20th century research into fundamental character and reveal the reasons warrant diabetes, chemical disturbances in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, detect chemical structure of insulin and its isolation, etc.
Analysis of clinical course and epidemiological data during this period show that diabetes is a disease inheritance and that it involves two types of diabetes, type 1 and type 2 that insulin is the key that opens the door for cellular uptake of glucose inside the cell where degrades. In the absence of insulin cage door remains locked, glucose accumulates in the blood and began to broadcast in the urine.  It also demonstrates that the degradation of glucose inside the cell is the body's energy supplies necessary for all biochemical processes. In the absence of insulin, this energy begins to be supplied by the breakdown of body fat and that is why in type 1 diabetes patients to weaken and to form acid in the blood products such as acetone, butyric acid, beta, etc., to warrant the occurrence of acetone in urine acidification of blood and diabetic coma.
Research on insulin represent a process that led to revolutionary results. Following the discovery of insulin begin its pre-production.
During the 30-year launches  production of fast animal insulins.
In the 70 years monokomponents produce insulin.
In 80-ies be carried out by gene technology, the production of human insulin injecting pen-type devices and insulin pumps.
In the 90 years of analog insulins appear ..
21-th century it was the century of the administration of insulin - analogues based on the principle of physiological insulin replacement, which is a key step in improving quality of life of diabetics. In 1996 appears the commercial market first fast Lizpro insulin analogue called the company Eli-2000 Lili.Prez company Novo-Nordisk produces insulin analogue - Aspar. Both are fast insulins, with a physiological effect in the diet, mainly covering high blood glucose after meals. They are especially handy in basal-bolus regimens of treatment because provide greater flexibility and convenience in daily life. Therefore, they enter into circulation 10 - 15 minutes after their injection, the maximum effect of 1 - 2 hours, duration of action shorter at 5 hours compared with Aktrapid. This account of their operation allows:
1. immediately after injection to accept food or insulin should be injected after a meal
2. to abandon intermediate snacks
3. not take into account the injection speed down the absorption / Intake / their
4. in connection with the elimination of intermediate snacks reduced insulin dose with subsequent reduction in body weight
5. to improve the exchange control / reduce fluctuations in blood glucose / and reduces glycated hemoglobin / SS-A-1-C /, and hypoglycemia.
Therefore fast insulin analogs have several advantages over human insulin fasts and therefore are preferred.
In 2000 to create the first slow analog insulin Lantus / glargine / by-company Sanofi Aventis.Toy can be applied only once in the evening, mainly type 2 diabetes or less in the morning and evening.
Novo-Nordisk also create a sluggish insulin Detemir / Levemir / insulin and a new mixed-Mix 30 / 30% 70% Aspar protamin /.
New insulin-Nordix neutral pH so that injections are not painful. Detemirat can be injected once only with large doses of hormones in most cases you'll have double injection morning and night to ensure the basal activity.
Opinion and sluggish analog iinsulini in favor of these insulins because their effect is not evenly without causing hypoglycemia peaks especially at night.
In the process of scientific research were introduced Tablet forms for the treatment of type 2 diabetes glyukomerite for blood glucose at home, insulin pens, which released the diabetics and enabled them to freedom in their daily insulin pen in your pocket or bag. Available funds sweetened new protein-based non-going up blood glucose removed the prohibition on restriction of pleasure from the consumption of sweet products.
All these achievements in diabetology become sweet people sentenced to death in a healthy contingent of experts helpless patients in the treatment of diabetes.
Prospector diabetologists continue to seek new gold grains and pebbles, which are positive will outweigh diabetic heavy backpack, which patients wear a life on his back.
After exposure to these short data relating to the most important discoveries in the history of diabetology, the pressing need to mention the great activity of the diabetic population to improve its own style and quality of life, particularly after the discovery of insulin.
Diabetic first public organization was founded in 1926 in Portugal and the Portuguese Association has called for protection of the poor diabetics. Then for the first time raised the request to provide free insulin for those who are unable to secure financial life-saving medicines.
In 1934 in creating the British Diabetic Association on the initiative of Dr. Lawrence, himself a diabetic. She became a leader in Europe and developing multiple activities, organizational, practical, scientific and experimental activities of which are covered by financial contributions mainly from donations of diabetic patients.
In 1949 one of the successive congresses of the British Diabetic Association to discuss the issue of establishing the International Diabetes organization and this idea is implemented in the following in 1950 in Amsterdam. Main points of that organization is, doctors and patients work together to improve the quality of life of diabetic patients by achieving optimal metabolic control.
In 1964 the European Diabetes Association are united in the European Association for the Study of Diabetes / EASD /, the Executive Committee of which Professor Damyanova was a member for 4 years from 1984 - 1988
Subsequently formed different groups in different diabetes problems:
treatment of type 1 and type 2 diabetes, diabetic foot, diabetes and pregnancy group to study nutrition, a training group of patients. This last group played an extremely important role in training teams to train patients and patients themselves.
In 1974 to establish Youth Diabetes Association / ISPAD / for children and juvenile diabetes because of the specificity of this group of patients.
In 1989 under the auspices of WHO and International Diabetes Federation in St. Vincent - Italy held a meeting of all the European representatives of patients, diabetes experts, government health departments, which are meeting to discuss the care of diabetics, the level and prospects research. At this meeting the participants agree on common goals and objectives for 5 years in diabetic patients.
The general objectives of the declaration include:
1. Life which is close to normal expectations for the duration and quality and constantly improving the welfare of diabetics.
2. Prevention and treatment of complications by stimulating research.
Yearly targets are specified care for diabetics as follows:
1. Develop programs to control diabetes and its complications with the support of patients and society.
2. Training of medical professionals and patients with diabetes.
3. Decrease by 1 / 3 of new cases of blindness, end stage renal failure, morbidity and mortality from ischemic heart disease.
4. Normal outcome of pregnancy in diabetes.
5. Care and support to children with diabetes and their families.
6. Stimulating international cooperation in research.
7. Creation of independence, equality and independence for all patients with diabetes.
The results of the targets in Saint Vensent statement recorded in Barcelona in 1999 by a different diabetes centers in Europe, show conclusively that intensive treatment to maintain blood glucose value close to normal reduces the risk of all complications regardless of age of the patients. This opens the key to control of complications, which means seize the fortress of complications respectively extention lives of diabetics.

Bulgarian Diabetes Association / BAD / was established too late, only in 1990 on the initiative and the chairmanship of the late Professor Kolebinov. It is now 19 years and constituted over 80 include peripheral diabetes companies.
In this not very small period of existence it is still in a period of organizational strengthening, which requires efforts by all its members to be able to achieve the objectives we set out from Saint - Vensent.
 
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