Dr. Diana Lekova
Myth may be defined as a widespread perception that contain elements of truth, but generally can not be accepted as true. Often myths (and allegedly) are true for many people and affected one way or another, and public opinion.
Many are the diabetic "myths" (rather than hearsay, speculation and a poorly understood scientific explanations). In most cases, they create barriers to the proper understanding of the disease and effective behavior in its management.
We show you some of the most common myths about diabetes, recently published by the American diabetic association.
Myth 1
You can get (to be " infected " by) diabetes from someone else.
Not true - Diabetes mellitus is not a contagious disease. Although so far not fully understood the reasons for its occurrence, it certainly can not "is catch" from someone like the flu or other infectious disease.
Heredity may play a predisposing role - this applies especially for type 2 diabetes. Essential, however, is the way of life.
Myth 2
People with diabetes can not eat sweets or chocolate.
If you are involved in a health plan or food intake is accompanied by physical activity, or other chocolate cake may be consumed by people with diabetes as from non-diabetics. But the consumption of sweets should be tailored to the daily energy needs. What does this mean?
Should take into account the calories, carbohydrates and fat contained in chocolate or any sweet / dessert and be part of the total daily volume. In other words, if you let one or two blocks or a piece of chocolate strudel, cookies, or two, it should be at the expense of something else on the menu, which should be off - the total amount of calories, carbohydrates and fats for the day not should be higher or different than usual.
In short: if we eat a piece of chocolate, it should be at the expense of another food that we would have delivered the same amount of calories, fats and carbohydrates - the final energy balance should not be changed.
The second option is to use energy with physical activity. For example, walking further or push bike, etc.
Furthermore, each type of chocolate and cake are small - the top of the food pyramid, due to their high fat and sugar. Of them should be eating at modest levels compared to all other foods.
Diabetics should not drink soft drinks with sugar, except for the control of hypoglycemia. To sweeten a tea, coffee, cocoa, compost cold dairy desserts (ice cream, yogurt with fruit, etc.), fruit salad should be used non-calorical artificial sweeteners.
Sugar can be used to prepare the domestic bakery wares, but as did the amount must be reduced. It is better to use brown (raw), a white crystalline or powdered sugar.
Instead store pastries and desserts, including diabetic, it is better to be prepared baking homemade dessert, or, in accordance with the rules: fewer calories, less fat (especially saturated!), Less sugar, more fiber .
Discuss your dietary instructor how you can afford a piece of chocolate cake or not violate the principles of healthy eating and not loaded with extra calories, fat and carbohydrates, leading to weight gain and adverse fluctuations in blood glucose after feed .
Warning! Dessert should be part of the food and not to eat more - that means that its content of calories, carbohydrates and fats should be calculated and included in the total for the day.
Myth 3
Eating a lot of sugar can cause diabetes.
This is not true. Diabetes mellitus is the result of a combination of hereditary factors and lifestyle. It is that overweight and obesity significantly increase the risk of developing diabetes.
The presence of relatives in a straight line suffering from diabetes, especially in people with overweight, leading to increased risk because they are added and inherited factors. It is recommended that these people observe a healthy diet and to improve their physical activity in order to normalize their weight. However, as shown by numerous scientific studies, can significantly delay or prevent onset of diabetes.
Consumption of regular soft drinks with sugar and confectionery products leads to a risk of weight gain, a prerequisite for the emergence of type 2 diabetes.
Myth 4
People with diabetes should eat special diabetic foods.
Widespread perception is that people with diabetes need to use fresh foods only if they are diabetic special options - such as chocolate and confectionery, biscuits and jams for diabetics.
According to the recommendations of the International Federation diabetic, healthy food plan for diabetics is the same as for all other people - it must be low fat (especially saturated or trans), salt and sugar and include more fruits, vegetables and palnozarneni foods.
Special "diabetic" sweets prepared not proven benefits to the common variants. These "ordinary" sugar (sucrose) is replaced with sugar alcohols or sugar fructose.
Calorical fructose has the same content with sucrose.
Some sugar alcohols have fewer calories, but because they are less sweet than sucrose, are used in large quantities to achieve a similar level of sweetness. Ultimately calorical content the last dessert with sugar alcohols do not differ from the regular version, sweetened with sucrose.
Special diabetic sweets are often less calorific as normal variants. They contain saturated and trans fats may also increase blood glucose and are also more expensive and may have a laxative effect (when a substitute for sucrose sugar alcohols are used). Poor are fiber, vitamins, antioxidants.
The words "suitable for diabetics" cake or "diabetic" chocolate is misleading because people with diabetes believe that they can safely eat this food. Mistake! Ready diabetic sweets contain calories, fats and carbohydrates, including calorific sweeteners (fructose and sugar alcohols). They are neither low nor health, nor with reduced fat content. There is not a reason to buy them!
Myth 5
If you have diabetes should avoid foods such as bread, potatoes or pasta.
Not true! Important is the size of portions and the total daily volume. It is to be consistent with the energy needs of the organism. It is believed that approximately one third of the diet should consist of products which contain carbohydrates - mainly grains and legumes (pulse), which are a good source of fiber.
Preferable options are whole - a good source of fiber flour and bread, oat bran, wheat, millet, soya, maize, wheat germ (germ), dark spaghetti, brown and wild rice, long grain rice (basmati). Potato is best to be roasted in the bark and not prepared in the form of puree (especially instantno) or fried.
Whole foods are rich in insoluble fiber, which helps digestion and are useful for the work of stomach tract. Legumen and oat bran are good sources of soluble fiber, which degrade relatively slowly, and this provides a more gradual increase in blood glucose after feed.
Back - refined carbohydrate foods - white flour, white bread, white rice, mashed potatoes, fine pasta horn fleyks - blood glucose increased sharply after the feed (a high glycemic index) and therefore are not recommended by the dietician today.
Myth 6
People with diabetes more often suffer from colds and other illnesses.
This is not true. Likely to become sick from the flu or cold in diabetic patients is not better than other people. However, people with diabetes are recommended to be regularly vaccinated against influenza because each infection may worsen control of blood glucose.
Upon infection, as with any acute disease, which is a stress on the body increased the risk of hiperglikemiya (high blood glucose) due to increased insulin needs. In people with type 1 diabetes that can lead to the emergence of ketoacidozis which life-threatening condition and therefore requires urgent measures to manage it.
Myth 7
The insulin causes atherosclerosis (thickening of the walls of the arteries) and high blood pressure.
The insulin does not cause atherosclerosis. In laboratory conditions it was found that high levels of endogenous insulin (hiperinsulinemiya) can activate some of the processes related to the earliest phase of development of atherosclerosis.
It is, however, that exogenous insulin does not have this effect. Moreover - strict control of blood glucose with intensive insulin therapy (basal-bolusna therapy with three or more insulin injections daily or insulin pump supply) showed that reducing the risk of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease by 50 percent in people with type 1 diabetes in compared with conventional treatment (one or two insulin injections daily).
The benefits of strict glycemic control achieved with intensive insulin therapy on cardiovascular health are maintained long-term, the authors concluded the U.S. exploration DCCT (Diabetes Control & Complications Trial, Investigation of control and complications in diabetes).
During this 10-year study completed in 1993, 1441 young people with type 1 diabetes were divided into two groups - one of intensive insulin therapy to achieve and maintain a level of glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) average 7 percent. In the other group was maintained in parallel HbA1c level of 9% on average with conventional insulin treatment. The difference between the two groups was maintained for at least six years.
After completion of the DCCT, part of the participants agreed to be monitored for another 12 years, although levels in both groups HbA1s gradually equalled (similar to an average around 8 percent). This continuous monitoring has been called EDIC (Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications, Epidemiology of interventions in diabetes and complications).
Intensively treated group during the DCCT continued to this day have a lower incidence of cardiovascular disease  by 50%. Currently, the average age of the patients participated in the DCCT, was 45 years. Of these, 1375 people have seen for 17 years and data from DCCT / EDIC firmly support the benefits of early strict control of blood glucose with intensive insulin therapy in type 1 diabetes.
Aggressive strategy not only reduces the risk of diabetes-related chronic complications - diabetic retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy, but also by diseases of vessels of the heart and brain due to atherosclerosis.
Myth 8
The insulin causes increased body weight and risk of obesity because it is "double-edged sword" in diabetics who have problems to control their excessive weight.
Two large-scale and long-term studies on this issue - U.S. DCCT (wrote about it above) and the UK UKPDS (United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study, prospective study of diabetes in the UK) showed that strict control of blood glucose using insulin treatment has significantly more benefits for people with diabetes than the risk of increasing body weight, which is minimal subject to the diet.
Myth 9
People with diabetes should avoid eating certain fruits such as grapes, pear, banana, prunes because of their high sugar content.
Not true - no prohibited or bad fruit. The rule is that the carbohydrate content of each product should be calculated.
Instead of one species may be consumed in another type of fruit size, containing an equivalent amount of carbohydrate = 12 grams = 1 bread unit. For example, an apple may be replaced by half-medium-sized banana or half a medium-sized pear, or grapes and nine grains etc.
People with diabetes should consume three to five portions of fruit every day because they are a source of vitamins, antioxidants, fibers. Because fruit contains carbohydrate, the quantity should be calculated.
Discuss with your instructor or dietetic your doctor to regularly include fruits in your daily menu and how the size of a portion of the various species. As did a portion of fruit bread means 1 unit = 12 grams carbohydrate.
Myth 10
Treatment of people with diabetes should not be changed until their level of glycated hemoglobin (A1c or HbA1s) does not exceed 8 percent.
Not true! The amount of glycated hemoglobin is an indicator that carries information about the levels of blood glucose for a period of two or three months. It is used to assess the long-term control of blood glucose in people with diabetes.
The more that control is good, the less likely to develop complications of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases.
If the amount of A1s over 7%, this means that control of blood glucose is not very good and the risk of occurrence of diabetic complications and related diseases is greater.
The more the value is close to the level of A1s in non-diabetes (under 6%) less likely to occur in the future chronic complications.
In general, American diabetic association recommends to maintain the value of A1s under 7 percent. Diabetic International Federation recommends an even lower amount - less than 6.5%.
However, in striving to achieve the maximum level of A1s near normal values, there is an increased risk of hypoglycemia (low blood glucose), especially in people with type 1 diabetes and in those who are treated with insulin or some antidiabetni tablets.
It is best to discuss with your doctor what values A1s are optimal for each particular case. People with reduced awareness of hypoglycemia capture, small children and the elderly must maintain a slightly higher value to avoid the risk of undesirable hypoglycemia.

Dr. Diana Lekov